Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science

Thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures

Data vs. Information vs. Knowledge

Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. When data is processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make it useful, it is called Information. – (Merriam-Webster’s Online Definition)

Data is a strange element.  Some researchers think that matter consists from data. That is a humongous claim and difficult to prove. However, information does consist from data, according to the information theory. Information theory, however, does not consider message importance or meaning, as these are matters of the quality of data

Then again, information is not knowledge. According to Ray Kurzweil, intelligence selectively destroys information to create knowledge (The Singularity is Near, 2005).

In the simplest everyday terms, "information" suggests a practical chunk of reified experience, a unit of sense lodged on the hierarchy of knowledge somewhere between data and report. - Erik Davis

Some examples of how to aquire Knowledge

  • Knowledge can be derived from study, experience, or instruction.
  • Knowledge can be derieved from a specific event or situation; intelligent processing of data. Eg. naturalistic observations.
  • Knowledge can be a conclusion based an collection of statistical information 
  • Communication of information might result in a communication of knowledge if the recipent is willing to believe on what the informant is saying.
  • A numerical measure of the internal linkuncertainty of an experimental outcome. 
  • Knowledge can be derived from delusions and faulty perceptions. A police officer might have knowledge of a crime but the grand jury might judge think that his knowledge isn't even informational.


The subpages will have much more information (currently under construction).